Kathy Smith, 43, of Morton died at the scene of the accident.
The driver of the truck, Ramon Rodriguez of Levelland, suffered broken bones in the collision.
He was taken to Covenant Health System in Lubbock for treatment.
Rodriguez, was removed from the truck with the assistance of firefighters and Levelland EMS personnel.
The accident occurred shortly after 1:30 p.m., about four miles west of Levelland on Texas 114.
The impact from the collision shredded the car, knocking it off the north side of the highway.
The truck traveled about 220 yards east before coming to a stop off the north side of Texas 114.
Texas Department of Transportation employees and law enforcement officers blocked off both approaches to the scene, forcing motorists to make detours.
Smith was westbound in a Mercury Grand Marquis while Rodriguez was headed east in a Rodriguez Trucking & Hauling truck.
The driver’s side of Smith’s car apparently collided with the driver’s side of the 18-wheeler, said state Department of Public Safety Trooper T.J. Martin.
The accident remains under investigation.
The fatality was the third one to occur in Hockley County since Sept. 16.